CSS4 is the new catch phrase in the web development industry that came out after the release of a working draft of CSS Selectors Level 4 by W3C. Many people who just get used to the awesomeness of CSS3 are in a serious shock, especially the web browser vendors who started working damn hard to set their commands on Psd to CSS3 conversion; web developer busy in updating their skills as per new Cascading Style Sheets language and last but not the least, front-end developers lost in the set of frustrating code structures to create powerful and interactive tools that help in streamlining the work experience with the style sheets.

“What about Photoshop to CSS3? Is it over?” are some common questions that might be troubling you now when everyone is working hard to adapt the goodness of CSS3. Calm down my friend. “Level 4” of CSS is nothing but a number of the W3C document. The whole story revolves around Selectors – the first document that reach to the fourth level and the good news is the work is still in progress. Interestingly, each and every document is loaded with its own specification number, keeping the documents separate from others.


Let’s understand the whole nitty-gritty of Selectors. You can define selectors as patterns that are most commonly used in a tree structure of HTML. Interestingly, majority of the Selectors belongs to the Level 4 specification and are well known as pseudo-classes. It may range from simple element names to complex representations. The Selectors are not new to CSS, they have been in the scenario since the beginning of Cascading Style Sheets language and now they partnered with the fourth level, which emerged as  a great new additions.


Fortunately, we have the location pseudo-classes that help us in controlling the styling of links effectively. The Location based pseudo-classes give you the power to design link elements. The first such pseudo-class introduced by the Level 4 document of CSS is :any-link, stands for a temporary name that you can change further in the near future. It is widely used to collect definitions of a:link and a:visited into a single document

Another priceless advantage of using CSS4 Level second pseudo-class is :local-link. By using this, you can easily apply styles to the links of the current document and give a different look to the local links. Thanks to this line of CSS, which allow you to give a different style to the links and distinguish the overall look of links from the entire web page.

The :matches are the first Logical pseudo-classes introduced along with Mozilla’s Firefox 4 : -moz-any() a long time ago. It plays a great role in enabling us to group and match items in the CSS document. It helps in gathering different multiple definitions of anchor states into one. The :not is the another simple negation pseudo-class logical combinator that came into limelight with the CSS3 specification. It has become powerful with the “Level 4” of CSS.

Many web designers and developers blindly trust on these types of pseudo classes to add three dimensional effect to the text published in the web pages. The Three-Dimension Pseudo-Classes such as :CURRENT, : PAST and :FUTURE are also used for highlighting and blurring text portions of a web page that helps in giving a comfortable view of the document. Here, the :past pseudo-class refers to text portion prior to :current portion and :future pseudo-class is used to represent the next portion.

Designing each and every column of a web page is always counted amongst a serious task. This brings the grid-structural based pseudo-classes into a realm for web designers and developers who wanna give different styles to different columns of a web page. By using these CSS4 selectors such as :COLUMN, :NTH-COLUMN and :NTH-LAST-COLUMN, you can create both row-oriented and column-based table easily without any additional classes or markup.

Various pseudo-classes such as :enabled, :disabled and :checked are out there when it comes to UI elements of online forms. Usually, the checkboxes and radio buttons can be defined in two states – :checked pseudo-class for checked and :not(:checked) for unchecked. CSS Level 4 comes out with new: :indeterminate that allows you to style inputs in such a way that they’re neither checked nor unchecked.

Karun Verma

Karun Verma is a perfectionist and an online marketing expert with keen interest in finding new ideas and innovations in internet. He is the founder of HTMLTUTS+, a blog based on inspiration in Development, Designing and Online Marketing Ideas.

More Posts - Website

Follow Me:
TwitterFacebookLinkedInPinterestGoogle Plus